KLIPPEL R & D system is mainly composed of hardware platform, engineering management software and a variety of test software modules for all types of electro-acoustic / audio testing.
R & D system mainly provides daily acoustic test, small signal and large signal parameter test (including T / S parameters), distortion test, accelerated life and power test, numerical simulation and listening test, etc. It can be used to test almost all types Speaker products, from miniature speakers to subwoofer units, and even audio systems.
Test accessories such as laser sensors, test microphones, power amplifiers, and product holders, etc., help complete the entire test system.
The Vibration Scanning System (SCN) is an extended system component. It uses KLIPPEL analyzer hardware and special control software and accessories to test and analyze the vibration and acoustic radiation of speaker cones. There are other system expansion components for users to choose, Such as suspension component test (SPM), material parameter test (MPM), near field scan (NFS), magnetic field scan (BFS), ....
Sudden Pronunciation Test (TBM) / Suspension Component Test (SPM) / Numerical Simulation (SIM)
● Burst Test (TBM)
TBM module according to ANSI / CEA-2010 standard, provides an automated burst pronunciation test sequence. Use adjustable burst sound signal to test the maximum output sound pressure level of the speaker. Within the user-specified series of frequencies, combined with the increase of the amplitude of the excitation signal The test is automatically repeated. If the distortion amount in the sound pressure output reaches the threshold set by the user, the test automatically stops and reports the maximum SPL at this time. In addition, the module can simultaneously detect the second status signal, such as displacement, current or Voltage.
● Suspension component test (SPM)
Non-linear rigidity K (x) of suspension components (elastic wave, folding ring, paper cone) and passive radiator and its inverse compliance C (x), relative to the vibration displacement within the working stroke range of the suspension component Measure x for evaluation test. KLIPPEL has developed a dynamic non-destructive test method in accordance with IEC62459 standard, which tests the components under the same working conditions as the speaker, which ensures high test accuracy while simplifying The test system and the test time are shortened. The suspension parts to be tested are installed on the test bench using several fixing devices (ring kit, cone kit, cup cover kit, etc.), and the size can be adapted to a diameter of up to 222mm. The test bench is pneumatically excited The tested component depends on the rigidity of the suspension component, the quality of the component and the internal fixings, and vibrates at the resonance frequency. The parameters obtained from the test can be used to determine the properties of the suspension component at large signals, and to detect asymmetry And symmetrical vibration, which is the cause of unstable vibration performance and nonlinear distortion.
● Numerical simulation (SIM)
This module performs numerical prediction of small and large signal performance of electric speaker units, systems (open boxes, closed boxes, general-purpose boxes, passive radiators, etc.). The extended speaker model takes into account the speaker units (driving system and suspension). Main non-linear characteristics, acoustic system (air compression, opening loss, passive radiation suspension components, Doppler effect), power consumption and heat transfer, etc., using the LSI module to test the actual linearity of the speaker, non-linear Linear and thermal parameters, or virtual parameters of the design scheme. For two-tone excitation signals, all electrical, mechanical, and acoustic variables can be calculated. Through spectrum analysis, fundamental components and distortion components (harmonic distortion, intermodulation) Distortion, DC-like component) can be calculated. Each non-linear characteristic in the system can be turned on or off to study its effect on the system output. This can reveal the main source of distortion, and give some suggestions for optimizing the speaker design. Value information.
Vibration Scanning System (SCN) / Sway Modal Analysis (RMA) / Power Test (PWT) / Near-field Scanning System (NFS)
● Vibration Scanning System (SCN)
The vibration scanning system tests vibrations and mechanical structures of speakers, micro-horns, earphones, and other radiators in electroacoustic or motor transducers, and mechanical components. SCN analysis software uses the scanned data to perform mechanical vibration results. View, animation display and modal analysis. Using mechanical vibration data, the sound pressure output at any point in the half-space sound field and the radiation characteristics in polar coordinates can be predicted. The patented decomposition technology can display the radial and circumferential modes of the horn vibration and the vibration component related to the SPL output. This is the goal of the analysis and to provide a better understanding of the relationship between horn vibration and radiation.
● Swing Mode Analysis (RMA)
The swing mode analysis module uses the vibration data obtained from the non-contact scanning test and the linear parameters of the speaker to perform a comprehensive diagnosis of the swing mode. It reveals the quality problems of the speaker components, such as the diaphragm, suspension parts, magnetic fields, and the assembly process. Other issues. This module provides information about the energy level of the swing mode, including the magnitude and direction of the unbalanced driving forces caused by mass, stiffness, and Bl asymmetry. It provides a comprehensive set of modal parameters and those driving forces (root cause ) Corresponds to the transfer resonance relationship between the final tilting energy (symptoms) of the diaphragm.
● Power test module (PWT)
The power test module PWT, combined with the hardware platform: distortion analyzer DA2 or power monitor PM8, can perform destructive tests on the speaker unit or system, while permanently monitoring electricity, mechanics, thermal state variables and parameter changes. The signal of external or external input is controlled within the instrument by parameters such as amplitude, spectral bandwidth or peak factor, and continuously stimulates the speaker unit under test. The rise in the temperature of the speaker voice coil can be measured by monitoring the electrical impedance change at the speaker end. (Through the electrical impedance test, the mechanical parameters and instantaneous displacement of the horn can also be monitored without using acoustic, mechanical or thermal sensors.) The system periodically collects the horn parameters and state variables and stores them in hardware. In the internal buffer of the unit. Using USB to connect the instrument to the computer, users can view and study the detailed information of the speaker damage process. This information is very important to find the root cause of the speaker failure and the time sequence of the damage events. The user more accurately evaluates the maximum input limit of the speaker.
● Near-field scanning system (NFS)
The near-field scanning system provides fully automatic testing of the direct sound radiated by the sound source under test. The radiated sound can be determined at any distance and any angle in the three-dimensional space outside the scanning surface. You can get the directivity, sound power, sound pressure response and many other key indicators of any type of speaker or audio system, such as monitor speakers for near-field applications, mobile devices) and professional audio systems for far-field applications. With a minimum number of test points, a comprehensive data set can be obtained, including acoustic radiation data for the far and near free fields of the speaker with high accuracy.
Miniature suspension component test (MSPM) / Material parameter test (MPM) / Miniature speaker multi-point test (MMT) / Differential listening (DIF-AUR)
● Miniature suspension component test (MSPM)
Micro Suspension Component Test (MSPM) module is a module designed to test small and large signal parameters of suspension components of micro speakers (micro speakers, headphones, tweeters, microphones, etc.). Suspension components are bonded or installed It is fixed to a flat plate, and then it is installed and fixed to the closed pressure cavity as a whole. The suspension component is deformed under the excitation of the sound pressure in the pressure cavity. Parameters such as resonance frequency, Q value, stiffness, vibration quality, and mechanical impedance can be tested dynamically.
● Material parameter test
Material parameter test module (MPM), which tests the Young's modulus E and loss factor η of the original material used in speaker design. The improved cantilever technology (ASTM E 756-93) can also be used to test soft materials such as thin plastic Sheet, rubber and any type of paper material and conforming fiber material. After cutting a 1cm wide test strip, the test strip is fixed at one end and pneumatically excited using an SPM test bench.
● Miniature Speaker Multipoint Test Tool (MMT)
The MMT module performs data post-processing on multiple LPM test results of the micro-horn, thereby increasing the accuracy of parameter identification. The coil displacements at multiple positions on the surface of the micro-horn diaphragm are tested and spatially averaged to compensate The error caused by the horn sway mode and other irregular vibration modes. Additional tests performed under vacuum conditions and in the final application can evaluate the pure mechanical parameters of the horn and separate it from the acoustic elements. The module supports advanced Creep model (Ritter), which can study the important viscoelastic performance of miniature speakers in the low frequency region.
● Differential audible technology (DIF-AUR)
The difference audible technology module, by calculating the difference between the test signal xT and the reference signal xR after adjusting the gain and delay, separates the distorted signal and analyzes it. This audible technology does not require a speaker model, You only need to record the output signal of the device under test, and record in the small signal domain (reference signal) and large signal domain (test signal) conditions. This is useful for listening to distortion caused by non-linear paper cone vibration, and Distortion caused by wires, wipers, loose parts and other defects are very important functions.
3D Distortion Analysis (3D-DIS) / Transfer Function Test (TRF) / Large Signal Identification (LSI 3) / Linear Parameter Test (LPM)
● Three-dimensional distortion analysis (3D-DIS)
This module performs a series of steady-state tests using single or dual tone excitation signals with frequency or amplitude changes. It can test two signals at the same time, such as voltage, current, displacement, and sound pressure level; because the instrument uses high-quality conversion And synchronous data acquisition mechanism, the spectral components (fundamental wave, harmonics and intermodulation distortion, DC-like offset components, etc.) can obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio, and the frequency can be as high as 48 kHz or 96 kHz (depending on the hardware platform ). After the test is completed, the amplitude of the spectral components can be expressed as a 2D or 3D curve in the form of a pair of excitation signal frequencies or amplitudes.
The function of the 3D-DIS module is especially useful for speaker testing. If the amount of total harmonic distortion or the change in coil temperature exceeds the limit set by the user during the test, the software module automatically interrupts the test to avoid mechanical or thermal overload. The speaker is damaged.
● Transfer function test TRF
The TRF module can test two signals at the same time and determine the amplitude and phase of the linear transfer function, as well as the harmonic distortion components. The excitation signal is a logarithmic sine sweep signal with adjustable frequency spectrum, bandwidth, and crest factor. Use a time window for the impulse response (Gating) technology, which can separate the direct sound signal from the early reflected sound, mixed sound field and non-linear false signals. Finally, the data post-processing can get time delay, minimum phase, group delay and some frequency-time conversion information ( (Such as cumulative line attenuation, ultrasound spectrum). A new test technique is used to detect low-energy pulse distortion signal components, such as Rub & Buzz defects. It can reflect distortion components with lower energy, and is compared with traditional The Fourier analysis method has a higher resolution (Instantaneous distortion). The traditional Fourier analysis only reflects the average of the distortion components. In addition to using 2D (distortion vs. frequency) to express the results, the module can also use 3D display mode to express the pulse distortion result of the test. The distortion component can be mapped to the frequency and any of the following signals ( Ring shift amount, sound pressure), pulse distortion component which positioning and source identification which is very useful.
● Large Signal Identification (LSI 3)
Software module LSI3, used to identify each element in the centralized parameter model of bass, micro speakers, headphones, treble, exciters, small speakers and other electric transducers. Can be used to test in free air fields or installed in speakers The speaker unit. The unit under test works under normal operating conditions and is excited with a broadband noise signal. Starting from the small signal domain, the amplitude of the excitation signal gradually increases to the limit voltage of the speaker under test. A larger excitation voltage is identified by State variables and conventional protection parameters describing thermal and mechanical loads are automatically determined. An adaptive mechanism is used to identify the parameters of the horn model in real time. It is based on the prediction of the back-EMF, and is monitored by monitoring the voltage U ( t), and the current I (t) flowing through the horn coil. The effects of DC offset, amplitude compression, and other nonlinear characteristics that are dynamically generated during vibration can be studied in detail.
● T / S parameter test (LPM)
This software module accurately tests the electrical and mechanical parameters of the electric speaker by testing the voltage and current signals across the speaker.
Using a laser displacement sensor, the T / S parameter identification does not need to be tested twice, which avoids problems caused by air leakage or additional mass of the cabinet. Using the laser test method, the low-frequency creep effect of the suspension components can also be The identification makes the model of the electroacoustic device at low frequency more accurate. After the module is tested, it shows whether the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficient during the test and prompts the user whether the test results received the non-linear characteristics of the speaker and the power amplifier output performance. influences.